KATY TUR, MSNBC HOST: "THE BEAT WITH ARI MELBER" starts right now.
ARI MELBER, MSNBC HOST: Hi, Katy. Thank you very much.
I`m Ari Melber. You`re watching a special edition of THE BEAT.
We want to thank you for joining us, as we cover the latest developments in this coronavirus outbreak.
If last week was the first time this health crisis shook the entire nation. This week begins a clear and new phase of intensity across basically every measure we have, the public health impact, the market reaction, the government response.
And while this is certainly a harrowing time for so many, it need not be a time for confusion, let alone panic. And here`s why. The facts and the science provide a clear path for us right now. There are facts that you can gather that will guide your decisions in the days and weeks ahead.
And focusing on the right facts, while avoiding misinformation, can help prioritize what you do, and literally what you do to make you and your community safer.
So that is our spirit tonight as we begin. We have the latest facts and medical guidance for you throughout this broadcast. Here we go.
Right now, there are over 4,300 confirmed cases of coronavirus in the United States, which have led to over 80 deaths. We can now report 33 states have closed all public schools, plus additional districts across the country, and slightly more than 35 states declaring formal emergencies.
These measures and the wider concerns have the markets tumbling again today, the Dow down a whopping 13 percent. That makes this -- and you may have heard this last week, but now this is true as of today -- this is the worst for the markets since 1987.
This is a crash that also comes even after the Fed took new stimulus actions, like severely cutting interest rates. Now, across the globe, more and more countries are closing their borders to noncitizens.
Here in the United States, we`re seeing all sorts of new measures, Ohio literally postponing a presidential primary scheduled for tomorrow, the latest state to do so, in cities from Paris to New York to Los Angeles, officials shutting down restaurants and bars and movie theaters.
Health experts at the White House press conference today releasing new guidance, avoid groups of 10 or more, and if you can, just stay home.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
DR. DEBORAH BIRX, WHITE HOUSE CORONAVIRUS RESPONSE COORDINATOR: No matter who you are, please stay home. If someone in your household is diagnosed with this virus, the entire household should quarantine in the house to prevent spread of the virus to others.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
MELBER: President Trump also struck a somewhat different tone today. He cited experts a bit more. He acknowledged a recession may be coming. And then he credited the role of the press during a national crisis like this.
These are notes from the president that are certainly different than usual. We`re going to get into that more later in the hour.
He also said something, big picture, that, whatever your thoughts, whatever your politics, whatever views you bring to the way America normally runs, he said something that I bet you can understand or relate to, that we are in a new reality. And it`s a reality that could last quite some time.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
QUESTION: Is this the new normal until the height of the summer?
DONALD TRUMP, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: We`ll see what happens. But they think August. Could be July. Could be longer than that. But I`ve asked that question many, many times.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
MELBER: The truth is, no one knows exactly how long this will go. You can name a month, July, August or later.
We do know, though, that experts have told us the nature of the spread of this virus in other countries, which is a very recent type of precedent, suggests that those of us here in the United States are currently still in the early stages of how our nation adjusts and reacts.
What comes next, though, depends on several factors, some we can`t control. We know that. But others are behavioral and policy choices that the nation can control.
Some of them are at an individual level, limiting interactions, following CDC guidance. Some of them are at the local level, the rules set by local authorities. And some relate to national decisions that the president and the Congress will continue to make.
I want to kick off our broadcast tonight with Rick Berke, who runs the Web site STAT covering all health news. He was a longtime reporter and senior editor at "The New York Times." Anne Rimoin, an epidemiologist at UCLA, and Katty Kay, Washington anchor for BBC News.
Rick, when you look at the available facts, what is most important in understanding where the United States is at right now?
RICK BERKE, CO-FOUNDER AND EXECUTIVE EDITOR, STAT: Well, let me say Ari, I thought it was very important what you said at the outset about the spirit of facts and the truth.
And I was really struck by the president today when he said, a month ago, nobody ever heard of it.
I was -- I almost fell out of my chair, because our lead public health reporter, Helen Branswell, wrote about this January 4. We had -- a month ago, we had written over 100 stories, not just us, but other reputable news organizations.
So the facts were out there. And the sad truth is, people weren`t looking at the facts. And it`s important for us to know -- for us to all keep putting them out and being -- as you said, not being panicked, but sort of taking the right steps, and knowing what we don`t know.
We don`t know if hospitals are going to be overloaded. We think that could happen. But there`s a model -- we wrote about it -- where data scientists today just said, well, if we do proper social distancing, the hospitals may not be overloaded.
So there are a lot of on unknowns here that we have to be aware of.
MELBER: You think about, as you said, the known unknowns, to use a phrase, and then the known knowns.
Doctor, we have a lot of things that we can do. And that`s been an emphasis on this.
I want to play for you Dr. Fauci talking about the level of reactions we`re seeing and what is not an overreaction. Take a listen.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
DR. ANTHONY FAUCI, NIAID DIRECTOR: When you`re dealing with an emerging infectious diseases outbreak, you are always behind where you think you are if you think that today reflects where you really are.
That`s not word speak. It means, if you think you`re here, you`re really here, because you`re only getting the results. Therefore, it will always seem that the best way to address it were to be doing something that looks like it might be an overreaction.
It isn`t an overreaction.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
MELBER: I appreciate the nuance of what he`s asking us all to consider, the doctor using his bedside manner to speak to us all like adults.
What does it mean for us to understand that things that may seem -- quote, unquote -- "drastic" because they ask a lot of us are not necessarily a -- quote -- "overreaction"?
ANNE RIMOIN, UCLA EPIDEMIOLOGIST: Exactly.
When public health methods work, that is when we think afterwards, this was -- this was all a big overreaction. We all have to do everything we can, and -- to limit spread, to flatten the curve, social distancing, all of the things that everybody is telling us to do.
This will limit spread here in the United States, as it has in other countries. And the other thing we have to remember is that epidemics have happened all over the world before. And countries, when they can pull together, between business, between government, and between communities, they are all able to flatten the curve of epidemics before.
We have seen this in other places. We have to do the same things that we have done in other places now on a large scale. We`re just not used to it here in the United States.
MELBER: Katty Kay, thinking about the United States vs. other places, and, of course, what we can learn from other places, what`s been happening with the stress in air travel, take a listen to some of the passengers our reporters have talked to as this is all unfolding.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It felt like a scary movie, because of all the people wearing masks.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: No consistency in questioning, no temperature check, no swabs, nothing.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: So, it just been a lot of confusion, to the point where I just want to come home, because it`s not even worth the stress.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
MELBER: What do you think we can learn about this from the global side, Katty?
KATTY KAY, BBC: I think there`s quite a lot we can learn.
I was actually due to fly in on Sunday night into the States. I changed my travel plans to come back from Europe early. And when I flew in, there was no temperature testing, and there was no swabbing going on at Dallas Airport at all.
The temperature testing does seem to be key. If we`re not going to give people swab testings, what happened in China that seemed to work effectively is, you got your temperature taken everywhere. You got onto the bus, your temperature was taken. You went into your own building, your temperature was taken.
And if you had a high fever, you were separated from your family. One of the important things I think we heard from the White House today, and actually from the U.K. government today, was this stress on family clusters, because many of the cases, a large proportion of the cases in China were actually in family groups.
So, trying to separate people from their families if they`re sick, but also isolate whole family groups, so that they don`t then go and affect other people.
I think, to some extent, the United States has the advantage of being able to learn from other countries. There`s a tragedy that the Trump administration didn`t seem to want to learn for the first month or so of this.
And now, today, we saw a very different tone. And, hopefully, they are looking at what happened in other countries and taking lessons from those.
MELBER: On that point, brings us to something else we wanted to get to, Rick, which is, take a listen to the surgeon general discussing the examples from other countries.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
DR. JEROME ADAMS, SURGEON GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES: I think you have got several different models.
And, yes, there is a potential for us to become Italy. We`re doing the right things now so that, in two weeks, we don`t become Italy. But we`re all in this together.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
BERKE: I think we do have the benefit of seeing other models and how it`s playing out in other countries.
But that last quote, we`re all in this together, it`s really interesting to me. I think back to this crisis, and I think back to 9/11, when we were all uncertain and panicked, and not knowing where to turn.
And I remember, as a political reporter, I didn`t have much to write about, because we were -- we were all in this together. We weren`t -- this country, the political leaders, were not attacking each other. Everyone thought, there`s a common goal here.
And now we have a situation, because of what we`re hearing from members of Congress, members of the White House about the performance and the reaction of our leadership in this country, it`s become political and partisan in a way that doesn`t serve anyone well.
And it`s really striking to me, because this feels like it should be a moment when people are together, are in this together and there should be common goals. And I worry that that`s not happening.
MELBER: Katty, do you share that concern? Or do you see any evidence that -- again, this has been happening so quickly for some, although, as Rick says, many scientists, doctors and folks who write about this full-time, what we might call the empirical community, has certainly been on it and warning.
But do you see Washington catching up to the seriousness of this, even, say, today vs. a week ago?
KAY: Yes, I mean, I think you did see the White -- a new tone from the White House today, certainly.
It didn`t seem to reassure the markets. In fact, the markets now seem to think that the alarm that is being expressed in the White House and in the Federal Reserve made the markets even -- investors even more anxious.
I think the real issue is that the whole country has become politicized. And it`s really alarming to see the degree to which even the coronavirus and how serious you think it is depends on whether you support the administration or you don`t support the administration.
That`s kind of fatal. I mean, we have to get people on board with realizing this is a serious problem, because, otherwise, people won`t make the sacrifices necessary. And they have to have that from leadership. They have got to hear it from the White House and they have got to hear it from Republicans on the Hill.
MELBER: Go ahead, Rick.
BERKE: There was an encouraging tone today at that press conference.
KAY: Yes, there was.
BERKE: I think you`re all right about that.
And I thought, for the first time -- and I can`t remember the last time the president complimented the press for its handling of anything. And he complimented the press, after being very critical of the coverage for a while. So I think that`s progress.
MELBER: You mentioned that. That caught our ears as well, not strictly because we happen to be in the press, but because, both on that, as well as the name of one of his well-known Twitter foes, Jeff Bezos, who has been trying, reportedly, to be a part of the solutions, he skipped the usual petty reactions we have seen in almost every other setting about the press and beyond.
We`re actually going to show some of that later in the broadcast because it`s so relevant.
Rick Berke and Katty Kay, I want to thank both of you.
Doctor, stay with me. We`re going to bring you back for something else special this hour.
Coming up, Donald Trump also telling governors maybe they need to get respirators on their own. Rhode Island Governor Gina Raimondo is here, an interesting chance to get a different local perspective, later in the hour.
I also have tonight a live interview coming up with a volunteer who just received the very first test of a potential coronavirus vaccine. That is definitely important news we want to get into.
We`re also going to speak about the race for treatments with a scientist leading this effort who has been working with this virus every day for weeks.
And we will hear from one of the experts who helped saved the economy after the financial crash about what should be done now and the sense of perspective we all need.
I`m Ari Melber. And you`re watching THE BEAT on MSNBC.
MELBER: Welcome back.
Different countries around the world are obviously tackling coronavirus in different ways. But in the United States, federal authorities say, as of tonight, there are no plans for a nationwide quarantine.
We heard that from federal officials Sunday, and the president reiterating it today, a federal quarantine not on the table.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
QUESTION: Are you considering instituting a nationwide lockdown, a nationwide quarantine? The NSC knocked that down, but there`s still some questions about how it all came to be.
TRUMP: At this point not nationwide, but -- well, there are some -- you know, some places in our nation that are not very affected at all. But we may -- we may look at certain areas, certain -- certain hot spots, as they call them.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
MELBER: That`s the public position of the federal government.
But -- and this is important -- I want you to know, if you looked on Twitter, and certain parts of the Internet over this weekend, you would have seen the opposite of the fact we just reported, because there were all kinds of vague rumors and tweets about a lockdown.
This is a reminder to treat unsourced information very carefully right now. And there are new reports that foreign governments may have been pushing the online talk of a federal U.S. lockdown to both scare and divide Americans.
Now, having said that, you should also know, at today`s press conference, we saw a president -- we were discussing this before the break -- a president who struggled with his response to this crisis, at one point disclaiming any responsibility, and last week still poking, stoking and trying to poke at rivals with all sorts of petty fights.
Well, we did see an attempt at a different tone today, the president saying uncharacteristically measured things about the media, about the owner of "The Washington Post," who has personally locked horns with the president before, Amazon founder Jeff Bezos.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
TRUMP: I think a lot of the media actually has been very fair. I think people are pulling together on this. I really think the media has been very fair.
QUESTION: We heard that Jeff Bezos has been in contact with the White House daily. Can you say what he`s been asking for or proposing to do?
TRUMP: Well, I`ve heard that`s true. I don`t know that for a fact. But I know that some of my people have, as I understand it, been dealing with them or with him.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
MELBER: As we look at the government response, we`re joined by Rhode Island Governor Gina Raimondo, who shut all bars and restaurants in Rhode Island. That begins tomorrow. There are reportedly 21 cases or more in the state.
And the former chair of the Republican Party, Michael Steele.
Good day to both of you. Appreciate you making time.
MICHAEL STEELE, MSNBC POLITICAL ANALYST: Hey, Ari.
MELBER: Governor -- good to see you.
And I`m on a slight tape delay, I will tell you and viewers -- slight sound delay.
Governor, what you heard from the president, does it sound constructive to you? And does it sound like a shift? And how does it relate to what you`re doing locally?
GOV. GINA RAIMONDO (D-RI): Yes.
So thank you for having me.
What we`re doing locally is really taking action. Here in Rhode Island, we have tried to stay out in front of this. We were one of the first states to deploy our National Guard to help us do some of the testing.
I would say, at this point, the federal government is trying to catch up. We had a call today with the president and the vice president, all of the governors. I appreciated the call. I appreciated that they are listening to us.
But, right now, states are leading, and the federal government needs to continue to speed up the urgency with which they are acting. We are particularly concerned -- every governor I know who`s dealing with this is particularly concerned with access to the personal protective equipment.
Our front-line workers, doctors and nurses, we need to get them the masks and the gloves that they need to protect themselves. So it is a good shift in tone by the president. I think it`s late and coming. And the White House and our federal government needs to pick up the pace and catch up to where many of the governors are.
STEELE: Yes, I agree with that.
I think the governor`s hit it right on the head. Governor Hogan and the state -- from the state of Maryland, who`s head of the National Governors Association, has been coordinating with the governor and others around the country on that very front line.
Because the federal response was so slow, the fact that the federal government, the CDC, specifically turned down WHO, World Health Organization, test kits back in January, we`re now a little bit behind the eight ball. And you`re trying to do a mass production of testing kits to get into the hands of the governor and the states around the country makes this a very, very difficult challenge.
But to their great credit, these governors have been on the front line. They are closest to the people, as you know, Ari, and they have a better sense of how these crises tend to form themselves and what they need to do.
I remember, as a lieutenant governor of Maryland, dealing with certain issues in our state at the time, working with the governor, massing not just medical personnel, but your National Guard, if necessary, and hospitals.
And even the school system, as we see here, they`re front-line elected officials. They`re on that wall, so to speak, and have been handling this and actually sort of giving the government, the federal government, pointers on what they need and what they need them to do next in order to stay ahead of this thing.
MELBER: Michael, what did you think of the tone that Donald Trump struck today?
Was it different enough to matter? Or is this the soft bigotry of low expectations?
STEELE: Well, I think it`s a little bit of both.
I think that there were points where the president still doesn`t want to take, accept -- accept responsibility for the slow response of his administration, looking backwards again, blaming, wanting to blame others for that.
But the governor -- and as we here in Maryland know with Governor Hogan, you have got to look beyond that. And so you take that glimmer of positive tone, sort of, OK, I get it. I understand what`s going on now. And we`re going to mass the resources that you need to get ahead of this thing as quickly as possible, taking the necessary steps, looking to the governor.
Some states are a little bit more severe with their quarantines, others not so much, depending on the nature of the virus there. And that gives them the flexibility to make those choices.
So, when the president says to sort of quell this Internet rumor of a national lockdown, that would hamper governors at this point. And so good that he recognizes and he wants to let the governors decide right now what`s the best course of action to take in their states.
MELBER: Governor, I saw you nodding.
I also want to read you briefly from a story that got a lot of attention here from "The New York Times": Trump to governors, find your own respirators -- quote -- "Respirators, ventilators, all the equipment, `Try getting it yourselves.`"
RAIMONDO: We are doing that. We have been doing that for weeks. It`s time for the federal government to step up.
I agree with Michael that the tone matters, and I was pleased to hear a different tone today. We need action. We don`t need a better tone. We need action. We need ventilators to be made available to us. We need manufacturers to increase manufacturing of the personal protective equipment.
We need the federal government to massively step up the speed with which they are coordinating and getting -- getting these supplies to governors.
Also, I would say, back to the difference between tone and action, the economic impact of the virus and its spread is enormous.
RAIMONDO: I was very proud Rhode Island was one of the first states to make unemployment insurance available. Today, I closed bars and restaurants. Unemployment is going to go up.
That`s -- we know that as a fact. So, what I would say to the president is, don`t wait. You know that now. Let`s get working, put another package together to start thinking about a stimulus which is big enough to make a difference. Don`t wait. Act.
That`s what governors are doing. And that`s what the White House needs to do.
And that`s why, all of a sudden, everything is -- quote, unquote -- on the table, Senate Democrats pushing new policies today to go to exactly what you`re talking about, robust unemployment insurance, emergency child care for families that are obviously going to be affected, and this hitting working-class families and people without health care even harder than everyone else, although it`s a shared challenge.
Governor Raimondo and Michael Steele, thanks to both of you.
RAIMONDO: Thank you.
STEELE: You got it.
MELBER: We are covering this story from a lot of different angles.
And, next, we turn to something special, the first person to receive a test of an experimental coronavirus vaccine. She actually got this shot today.
She joins us on MSNBC when we`re back in 30 seconds.
MELBER: Today, the United States has tested its very first coronavirus vaccine.
It went to a volunteer that you see right here, 43-year-old Jennifer Haller, who is from Seattle. That`s one of the hardest-hit areas for this virus in the nation, Washington state, with over 840 cases.
It`s a fast-moving story. And she joins us right now, the very first coronavirus vaccine volunteer, Jennifer Haller. And back with us for a medical perspective, Anne Rimoin, an epidemiologist at UCLA.
Jennifer, thank you for what you`re doing. Obviously, this fits into a lot of the different ways people are participating and trying to help around the nation.
And thank you for being willing to talk with us.
JENNIFER HALLER, FIRST COVID-19 VACCINE VOLUNTEER: Yes. I`m so happy to be here. And I am so excited to be the first person. This is crazy.
MELBER: Yes, right? Crazy is one word for it. I think it`s got to have a lot of different feelings for you.
Very straightforward, I`d love for you to just tell us, as they say, in your own words, how did this come about? And walk us through what happened today.
Just a couple of weeks ago, there was a call for volunteers. And I filled out a form and got a call back, and went through the phone screen, past that, went in person for a physical exam, blood draw. Everything looked good there.
And here we are. I went in this morning at 8:00 a.m. and got the first dose. There it is. I am -- we feel -- all of us, I know we feel so helpless. Like, what can we do? And I am so excited that there was actually something that I could do. And I did it and I`m doing it.
And I`m so proud of myself and so thankful for the privilege that I have that allows me to do this. I`m healthy. I have a full-time job, salaried job. My company is flexible. They allow me to take time off to do this. I have supportive friends and family.
My real concern is for the people that have hourly jobs that -- lives are going to be severely impacted coming up soon.
MELBER: Based on what you`re learning what you`re participating in, where does this process go from here?
HALLER: I do a daily log, temperature and any side effects that I`m feeling. I keep track of those. I, of course, call in if I have any issues, do a phone call tomorrow, phone call the next day.
I will do weekly follow-ups, and then I will get a second dose of the vaccine in, I think, about four weeks. And then I will be followed through about 14 months through the study.
MELBER: And did the folks involved in this tell you about any potential risks? Obviously, this is, to put it simply, hopefully a good thing. And you`re participating in it, but you can imagine some people at home wondering, oh, my gosh, everyone`s nervous about all sorts of things right now.
How were you walked through the risks? How do you see that?
Yes, a really important thing to understand that`s really helped a lot of friends and family who were concerned is that this -- this vaccine uses messenger RNA. So, it does not use any of the virus. So, at no point during the study will I be exposed to the virus.
So that`s awesome. You know, regular potential side effects from a vaccine, totally up for those. And then, of course, there`s the absolute unknown, right? This one has never been tested in a human. And I`m up for it. I`m ready.
MELBER: And if they do have a breakthrough here, would you be really excited to be a part of demonstrating that?
I mean, there`s so much of this story that`s been so hard on people. It would seem this would be an opportunity, potentially -- I don`t want to get ahead of, obviously, the test run -- but would you be excited if it works out?
HALLER: Well, I mean, of course, yes. I mean, the chance that I could have something to do with helping save lives is huge.
And if this isn`t the right vaccine or whatever, I mean, at least I`m part of this -- the process. We`re part of figuring this out and getting closer to something to help everybody.
MELBER: Yes, fantastic.
Stay with me.
As mentioned, we`re getting this very newsworthy perspective from you, as Americans and people around the country and the world are wondering about the race for a cure or a vaccine.
As mentioned, I have Dr. Rimoin here.
What do you think it`s important that people understand about these types of tests?
RIMOIN: So, in terms of the vaccine that we`re discussing right now, vaccines will take a while to be able to move forward and to be able to go through all the safety testing.
There are a lot of regulatory aspects here. And what this woman is doing right now, which is really wonderful, is participating in a vaccine trial.
In terms of tests, there are several tests that are coming online. And the more that we can get screening going rapidly disseminated everywhere, the better we are, and the more that we will understand what we have in this country in terms of burden of infection that will help dictate where policy goes.
MELBER: And, again, following up to you, everyone wants to know about timelines.
How quickly do you think we could learn about whether a given vaccine or a given experimental cure could be workable and then distributed?
RIMOIN: It really -- there are several steps, regulatory steps, that have to happen. And this is to protect people, to make sure that there are no side effects, that the safety data is really straight, is very good.
And once we have those data, then it can move forward into the next step. But there are always several regulatory steps that protect everyone, so that when a vaccine is available to the public, it will -- we will know that it works well.
And we still do believe that this will take place a year so to be able to be available to the public. So, right now, all of the measures that we`re talking about, we can`t be putting our hopes into a vaccine. We need to be putting our energy into social distancing, to making sure that hospitals are not overloaded, and that everybody does their part to be able to slow the spread of this virus.
MELBER: Really great points about the difference between a panacea, hoping for this to all just be worked out, vs. all the things we have been covering that people still have to do.
Jennifer, final question. What do your friends and family say? What are you telling them?
HALLER: Some are wary about it.
But, no, it is amazing the outpouring of support and love that I have received from friends and family. And I have had messages from strangers on Facebook thanking me. And it`s so -- I`m just so thankful that I get to be part of this.
I think it`s great, what you`re doing. I appreciate you not only doing it, but taking time to share something that is -- for some people, would obviously be private or difficult. You`re clearly a person that`s willing to jump in and also be a part of sharing what could be the search for some scientific breakthroughs here.
Jennifer Haller, thank you.
MELBER: Anne Rimoin, stay with us, as you`re part of our coverage.
Coming up, we will talk to a scientist that some are calling a coronavirus hunter, a world-renowned expert whose team is racing for a cure.
MELBER: Welcome back to our special coverage.
We have been looking at several different aspects of the ongoing health crisis in the United States. And now we turn to another part.
We just heard, in a newsworthy way, from the very first person to ever test a vaccine for coronavirus, Jennifer Haller in Washington state.
Now we look at this search for an outright cure. One of the nation`s preeminent research labs is at the University of North Carolina. And they have a team of scientists who are protected head to toe by body suits with battery-powered respirators.
They work in a windowless, air-locked laboratory in a secret location. And they are searching, quite simply, for the cure. That is according to some Bloomberg reporting.
And joining us now via Skype is one of the people leading that lab and who some have dubbed a -- quote -- "coronavirus hunter" of sorts, Professor Ralph Baric. And back with us, epidemiologist Anne Rimoin. The two, of course, know each other.
Ralph, what are you guys up to? And, as everyone wants to know, are you any closer to a cure?
RALPH BARIC, UNC GILLINGS SCHOOL OF GLOBAL PUBLIC: Well, it`s a pleasure to be here on your show, Ari. And a special shout-out to Jennifer for her courageous efforts and leadership in taking the vaccine.
MELBER: Shout-out to Jennifer.
BARIC: Yes. Yes.
Our group has been studying coronaviruses for about 35 years. And we have been focused on identifying small molecule inhibitors for the last five years that block coronavirus replication and pathogenesis.
One of those drugs, remdesivir, is currently in clinical trials. We developed it in collaboration with Gilead Scientific, as well as researchers at Vanderbilt University.
And a second drug called NHC we have also been studying that works well against all emerging coronaviruses, including SARS2. That was done in collaboration with groups at Emory University, and is moving through the FDA process right now.
MELBER: So, when you walk us through that -- and we`re on a little bit of a delay from Skype, but, if it`s all right, I`m going to ask you a follow- up.
When you just walk us through your opening there, to put it in plain English, this is a big area of research that`s been going on for years. And people are waking up more to your work now because of this public health crisis? Is that right?
BARIC: We have been working on developing these two particular drugs for over five years.
Remdesivir, we began collaborations with Gilead, really designed to develop drugs against new emerging pathogens. And we focused on coronaviruses, particularly not only the emerging coronaviruses, like SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus, and SARS2, but also contemporary human coronaviruses.
And this drug works against all of them. And so it`s quite impressive, at least in vitro, in animals, and now it`s in human testing.
MELBER: And when you look at what this takes, is there basically full support for everything you`re doing? We mentioned some of the reporting just about, obviously, the safety measures and the funding and all that?
Or is there more that the U.S. or other governments could do to help and expedite your work?
BARIC: Well, we have been well-funded by the National Institute of Health for about six years now, working on this particular problem.
We have also been engaged in some of the early vaccine work with the NIH and the NIH Vaccine Research Center, developing and testing, not only the RNA-based vaccines, but also the recombinant protein-based vaccines.
And part of that is because we developed the first animal models for many of these emerging coronaviruses. And so we were well-positioned to contribute to global efforts.
MELBER: I want to give Anne a chance to weigh in as well.
RIMOIN: Well, I think that what Ralph Baric is saying, who is one of the leaders in coronavirus research here in the world, is key.
His lab has been funded to be able to do this work. And it`s so important to have NIH and other funding to be able to do this kind of science, so that, when there is an emergency, that this can ramp up quickly and keep moving forward.
In general, funding has not been robust for science in general in the past several years, and so we`re seeing the results of that. We`re just very lucky that Dr. Baric has had so much ability to -- so much funding and so much work on this for so long that he can move as quickly as he can.
I have known him for a while. And I am very, very glad to see that he is front and center getting this work done.
MELBER: Well, and you mentioned the federal funding from NIH, both of you educating us all about how this works.
And it`s a really important reminder for the public, as we think about the tradeoffs, when we think about public health funding, new bills heading to Congress. If you have break glass in case of emergency, you need the fire extinguisher to already be in there. You don`t want to break glass, and then have an IOU note that, in six months, someone`s going to fund the production of fire extinguishers.
And with science, what we`re learning from all of you speaks to that and the runway you need. So we`re learning a lot as we go. We appreciate it, Ralph and Anne.
My thanks to both of you.
We have to fit in a break.
But, up next, we turn to another part of this crisis that is affecting so many Americans, the worst day in the markets since `87.
We have a very special guest, one of the architects of Barack Obama`s plan to rebound the economy, when we come back.
MELBER: Today, the markets continued to crash, this continuing response to the coronavirus that puts U.S. stocks not only in bear territory, but soaking talk of a full-blown recession.
That`s something President Trump even acknowledged today in his press remarks.
And here are a few financial facts for you. The Dow is down 13 percent. That`s the worst day since the Black Monday market crash in `87, a record that was previously held by crashes last week. We are now back to the worst in decades.
Now, during this crisis, the market has now been halted for trading three different times, including again today. The markets in general are reeling, but certain industries and workers are suffering more, like employees and companies in the hospitality and travel sector.
Top airlines have been cutting capacity by 50 to 75 percent. Today, the airline industry is already talking about seeking a $50 billion bailout.
Some analysts projecting the hit there could be worse than after 9/11, when travel, of course, plummeted. The hospitality industry taking the blow, as some of the largest cities in America are pushing to close bars and restaurants outright until further notice.
Tonight, Speaker Pelosi pushing a third relief package. That was right after this weekend`s emergency response package.
Now, as America both unites and rallies and looks for responses here, we are treating this, clearly, as the economic emergency that it is. But notice some are pressing for even bigger ideas and larger questions about what the priorities are.
For example, is this a time to spend more, so that every single American has health coverage in the first place? That`s a point that Joe Biden and Bernie Sanders were discussing at the debate last night.
And while President Trump has already suspended interest on student loan debt during this crisis, others are advocating this as a time to put some of the billions that are apparently up for grabs towards student debt relief outright.
Or do you remember the once longshot idea from progressive presidential candidate Andrew Yang, $1,000 cash payments for every American?
Well, in the midst of this public health crisis, right now, Republican Senator Mitt Romney is pushing a similar plan that would try to help people with cash payments during this outbreak.
I`m joined now by Gene Sperling, director of the National Economic Council in the Clinton and Obama administration. He also worked on crafting the Obama stimulus.
Great to have someone like you, who not only is an expert on the facts, but has been in the rooms when the hard decisions have to be made.
And so let`s begin with the hardest question.
Is this really a time to go right to the symptomatic issues or bailing out airlines, when, as some are advocating, maybe the real long-term solution, now that there`s billions on the table in Congress, would be to do the bigger things, do universal health care?
GENE SPERLING, FORMER DIRECTOR, WHITE HOUSE NATIONAL ECONOMIC COUNCIL: So, I think this is going to be a process where you`re going to find over and over again that the answer is going to be all of the above.
We have never seen this kind of economic pullback. When there`s a recession normally, several percent lose their job. Another percent lose some hours in wages. Others fear they could be next. But large chunks of Americans go on with daily life, continue to spend.
There has never been a moment in our lives or even our parents` lives, perhaps, where everybody is pulling back, where you`re seeing this kind of dramatic pullback.
SPERLING: And I think that`s going to require a response that`s unprecedented.
MELBER: Everything you said sounds right, but it sounds a little vaguely broad.
I`m pressing you on the very specific question, which is...
MELBER: ... if you -- if you`re a young person, say you`re under 30, and you don`t have health care, and you have punishing student debt, and you`re being asked to now fund through tax dollars a bailout of the airline industry that you don`t ride that often, why is that a superior economic stimulus to pausing travel and dealing with some of those underlying insecurities in the market?
Or is that the wrong way to frame the question?
SPERLING: Well, I mean, your -- I agree with you completely.
Things that people like myself are pushing -- and I think you will see from progressive and Democrats -- are the type of payment that goes not just to workers, but to unpaid caregivers, seniors, to everyone.
But I think you also have to know that that`s not going to be enough. You`re going to have to go to where the harm is. And I think that`s going to mean a moratorium on all evictions, not just for renters and homeowners, but for small businesses.
They`re going to need to know they don`t have to make that payment to get through. I think we`re going to need a dramatic expansion of unemployment insurance, not the more narrowly tailored, but anybody who`s losing a job or hours now, gig workers, people in the gig economy, are going to need money.
And I think we`re going to have to -- going to your interview with the governor, we have got to give major money and resources to the governors and mayors, who are on the front lines, who are being told to get the ventilators and the respirators themselves.
SPERLING: We are going to have to deal with funding people through these evictions.
SPERLING: So, I absolutely agree, the number one focus is on people.
MELBER: Just because you`re a newsworthy guest, I also want to get Gene Sperling on the Senate Democrats` proposal to waive all current federal loan interest, mortgage, student debt, et cetera?
That`s in the new Schumer bill. Is that a good idea?
SPERLING: I haven`t seen the details. But, as I said, I`m for more, not less.
And I think you`re going to have to have moratoriums on many types of payments. And then you`re going to have to think about whether you can actually give people the relief, not just the forbearance, but the relief.
We got to -- we`re going to have to help a lot of people to get through. We should target it as well as possible. But I also think this is -- maybe is the time where you want to give some general relief, not just to workers, but to everybody to help them get through and hopefully fund some money.
SPERLING: I wouldn`t do it for people who are well-off, but for the people making $100,000 and under...
SPERLING: ... people struggling, yes, they need relief.
We need to help them, small businesses, people lacking health care, people needing free coverage, people with their housing, all of that, all of the above.
Gene Sperling, as they say in "Hamilton," you have been in the room where it happened.
MELBER: We had your expertise last week. We have it tonight.
And with this economic uncertainty, I hope you will come back on THE BEAT.
I`m going to fit in a break, and we will be right back.
MELBER: Some more things we want to show you tonight.
The singer Gloria Gaynor showing handwashing techniques with a song for these times that is now being shared online by young and old alike.
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MELBER: That has gone viral, as they say.
It`s a lighthearted, but also effective way to share the news. We need clear and memorable methods to follow all these precautions.
Many different people are getting in on the act. Take the rap group Wu-Tang Clan using the letters in their name online to spell out all the ways you can protect your neck from the virus, starting, of course, with washing hands.
Now, music and lyrics, they really always are about what matters most to people. So it`s not really surprising that we`re seeing artists speaking to what is clearly on so many people`s minds right now.
Also, actress -- I should say actor Idris Elba offered these new words after sharing that he tested positive for this virus.
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IDRIS ELBA, ACTOR: This morning, I got some test results back for coronavirus, and it came back positive, yes. And it sucks.
Now`s the time for solidarity. Now`s the time for thinking about each other. There are so many peoples whose lives have been affected, from those who have lost people that they love, to people that don`t even have it, and lost their livelihoods.
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MELBER: We wanted to share some of those reactions around the world with you.
Meanwhile, if you didn`t catch all of the debate last night in the United States, two major candidates who are left in this race for the nomination just battling back and forth.
Joe Biden and Bernie Sanders avoided the handshakes that are customary. They got into many topics and -- this is important amidst everything else - - a key promise from Joe Biden.
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JOSEPH BIDEN (D), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: If I`m elected president, my Cabinet, my administration will look like the country.
And I commit that I will, in fact, appoint a -- I will pick a woman to be vice president.
There are a number of women who are qualified to be president tomorrow. I would pick a woman to be my vice president.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
MELBER: That is the farthest Joe Biden has ever gone pledging diversity in gender on the ticket if he`s the nominee. It`s a big story at a time where there are many big stories.
As always, thanks for watching THE BEAT WITH ARI MELBER. I will be back here at 6:00 p.m. Eastern.
And keep it locked on MSNBC.
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED. END