Coronavirus Pandemic Special TRANSCRIPT: 3/31/20, The Last Word w/ Lawrence O’Donnell

Anthony Fauci, John Bel Edwards, Vin Gupta, Jon Bon Jovi




UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  These are simply not normal times.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  A challenge unlike any other our country has ever




we`ve never seen before in this country.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  As the virus spreads –


UNIDENTIFIED MALE:  Every minute is a minute lost.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  And the toll mounts.


DR. ANTHONY FAUCI, DIRECTOR, NIAID:  Now is the time to put your foot on

the accelerator.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  The health care pushed to the breaking point.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  I have some tears and crying right now because I`m so



UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  It`s like a war zone. We`re in a war with limited



UNIDENTIFIED MALE:  I worry that it`s too late for some of us.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  Millions out of work.




UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  I`m the only income.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  As America confronts a new reality.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE:  This is the most important anything I`ve ever been on.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  And wonders how much worse will this get and how does

it end?


GOV. ANDREW CUOMO (D), NEW YORK:  This is a moment that is going to change

this nation, a moment that forges character.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  This is an NBC News Special Report: The Coronavirus





SAVANNAH GUTHRIE, NBC NEWS HOST:  Hi, everybody, and welcome. It`s good to

be with you. I`m Savannah Guthrie in New York with Hoda Kotb.


And for the next hour, we are going to be bringing you the latest on the

coronavirus pandemic, which has now infected more than 850,000 people

worldwide, including more than 186,000 people here in the U.S.


HODA KOTB, NBC NEWS HOST:  And this day did start off with a sobering

milestone. The U.S. death toll passed 3,000. It is likely to exceed 4,000

before the day is over, as this virus continues to spread.


GUTHRIE:  And this evening, a grim projection from the White House, that

even in the best case scenario, we could see at least 100,000 deaths in

this country. To put that in perspective, that is roughly the number of

Americans that died in Afghanistan, Iraq, Vietnam and Korea combined.


KOTB:  We will be covering all aspects of this story. We`re going to take

you to the epicenter. We`re talking about New York City. We have the latest

on treatments and the search for a vaccine.


And we`re going to hear from doctors in their own words and see how people

are coming together in this crisis. And in collaboration with Facebook,

we`ll be answering your questions and we have a panel of experts.


GUTHRIE:  We got a lot of good questions tonight.


We`re also going to talk to Dr. Anthony Fauci about today`s disturbing

White House projections.


But we`ll start with a closer look at this crisis like no other.




GUTHRIE:  Tonight, the nation is reeling, as the death toll climbs. Just

hours ago, the administration said the virus could claim more than 200,000



TRUMP:  This is going to be a very painful, very, very painful two weeks.


GUTHRIE:  Dr. Anthony Fauci asking for the public`s cooperation.


FAUCI:  Let`s all pull together and make sure, as we look forward to the

next 30 days, we do it with all the intensity and force that we can.


GUTHRIE:  Dr. Deborah Birx.



no magic bullet. There`s no magic vaccine or therapy. It`s just behaviors.


GUTHRIE:  From coast to coast, an escalating crisis.


NBC`s Stephanie Gosk.


STEPHANIE GOSK, NBC NEWS CORRESPONDENT:  In the last few weeks, Dr. Calvin

Sun, an emergency room doctor, has worked in a dozen New York City

hospitals, over 18 shifts.


DR. CALVIN SUN, ER DOCTOR:  Now we`re bursting at the seams, and it just

seems that the system is about to collapse.


GUTHRIE:  Once again, the New York metropolitan area is ground zero. This

time, not for an act of terror, but for this pandemic, which has instilled

fear and horror just the same.


ANNE THOMPSON, NBC NEWS CORRESPONDENT:  This is New York as we`ve never

known it.


GUTHRIE:  NBC`s Anne Thompson.


What this makes this so different is that you cannot see this enemy. But

you know it`s there.


GUTHRIE:  The rate of infections is exploding, as is the death toll. In

just six hours Monday, 124 people died in New York City alone.


Calls to the city`s 911 system have set records for days, and first

responders are overwhelmed.


NBC investigative reporter Tom Winter.



area is going through an unprecedented public health and first responder

crisis all at once. You have tens of thousands of cases.


GUTHRIE:  Hospitals are desperately trying to respond.


DR. THOMAS MCGINN, NORTHWELL HEALTH:  Why don`t we get started?


GUTHRIE:  Each morning, Dr. Thomas McGinn of New York`s Northwell Health

System, conducts a conference call with 200 physicians. So far he thinks

they`re holding their own, but he`s not sure for how long.


MCGINN:  As I continue to repeat to everybody, the center of the storm is

New York City, and Northwell is at the center of that storm.


GUTHRIE:  And in its wake scenes no one would believe just a few weeks ago.

There`s now a temporary hospital set up in central park. It opened today.


One father and son team are in the vortex of the pandemic emergency. Dr.

Irwin Redlener is an NBC News analyst whose youngest son is a New York



DR. IRWIN REDLENER, NBC NEWS ANALYST:  Basically going to battle out there.


GUTHRIE:  Dr. Redlener is an acclaimed pediatrician and disaster

preparedness expert, who has witnessed countless tragedies.


I. REDLENER:  But even that doesn`t really compare to the emotional toll

that it takes to have a child on that front line at this particular time.


GUTHRIE:  His son, Dr. Michael Redlener, is associate medical director in

the emergency room at Mt. Sinai West Hospital in Manhattan.



safety, as well. He`s been teaching me my whole life it`s important to

contribute to society.


It`s March 27, 2020.


GUTHRIE:  For a few days, he`s recorded his observations at the end of his

shift. He spoke of a colleague, a nurse, who died from the virus.


M. REDLENER:  We were working side by side a couple of nights ago. So, it`s

a hard thing to understand that we`re losing people already.


I think we`re all a bit shocked about what this is doing to our lives. It`s

not just taxing the medical system, but taxing all of us.


GUTHRIE:  And then tonight, the family informed us that their other son,

Michael`s older brother, who is 52, has been hospitalized with coronavirus.


But there are some brighter spots in these dark times. In Teaneck, New

Jersey, at the hard hit Holy Name Medical Center, the CEO was diagnosed

with coronavirus, but this week, Michael Maron was able to return to work.


MICHAEL MARON, HOLY NAME MEDICAL CENTER CEO:  They all very happy to see me

back. To know that this disease doesn`t win all the time, and now I`m

walking, living proof of that.




GUTHRIE:  And joining us now is Dr. Anthony Fauci, the director of the

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, a key advisor to the

president in this crisis. He was at that White House briefing this evening.


Dr. Fauci, thank you for being with us.


FAUCI:  Good to be with you.


GUTHRIE:  I was watching the briefing, of course, at the White House. The

president put it very bluntly. He said this is going to be a hell of a bad

two, three weeks. You yourself said there will be a lot of suffering.


Can you tell people what that means, what they should be prepared for?


FAUCI:  Yes. What you`re going to be seeing over the next week or so is

that there will be the acceleration and peaking of cases, places like New

York City, New Jersey, New Orleans and other cities, and what you`ll see is

that even though in some cases such as in New York, where the number of new

cases per day appear to be leveling off a little, you always see

hospitalizations, intensive care and death that linger on.


So the next couple of weeks, we`re going to be seeing some serious things

that the American public unfortunately is going to have to get used to

seeing. What we`re doing with the mitigation is to try and blunt that. No

matter what we do, even with the positive effects that we`re seeing with

the mitigation, it`s going to be a tough couple of weeks coming up.


GUTHRIE:  And we looked at the models at the White House briefing, and it

suggests that if we do everything right, then perhaps the death rate in

this country will be somewhere around 100,000 to 200,000 deaths. That`s if

we do everything right.


Is the social distancing being done right now in every state enough for

that scenario to occur?


FAUCI:  Well, there are a couple of things about that, Savannah, that

deserve clarification.


First of all, the mitigation and social distancing clearly works. It`s

worked in other countries, which was definitively proven, and we`re seeing

it starting to really help right now in our own country, so we just need as

I said at the press briefing, we need to put our foot on the accelerator,

not on the brake. We have 30 days of the extension of the mitigation, the

guidelines we need to really push.


Now, getting back to that number for a moment, it`s really important. The

model tells you that even if you mitigate fully, you`re going to get to

this rather disturbing number of deaths, the 100,000 to 200,000. However,

as data comes in, the model is only as good as the assumptions that are put

into it.


So, it is conceivable that if we really put a real full court press, a real

push on with the mitigation, the data that comes out may have us modify

that model.


GUTHRIE:  So, let me ask you – 


FAUCI:  So, even though we anticipate – even though we anticipate that we

would get 100,000 plus, even with optimal mitigation, we can bend that

curve a bit. It`s within our power to do that.


GUTHRIE:  Well, let me ask you about that very thing. As we sit here

tonight, 33 states have stay at home orders, but the rest don`t. In your

medical opinion, should every single state in this country have a stay-at-

home order right now?


FAUCI:  Well, what every single state should do in this country is very

strictly follow the guideline groups of what we spoke about, which includes

that. No unnecessary travel, telework when you possibly can. No crowds of

more than ten people. Six feet away from individuals.


GUTHRIE:  Well, are they doing that?


FAUCI:  No restaurants, no bars.


Well, I don`t know. I mean, certainly, some of them are, but I see pictures

on TV, Savannah, that you do where people are not paying attention.


And that`s why I plead with them, when I get up at the press conference,

even though you think that this is not having an impact, not only are you

putting yourself in danger, but you`re putting society in danger, because

as you get infected, you may be inadvertently and maybe even innocently

infecting others, particularly those who are vulnerable.


So we`ve really got to get everybody on board. We don`t need beaches with

people frolicking. We don`t need crowded bars where people are interacting.

We`ve just got to stop that.


GUTHRIE:  Just real quickly because I got to move on, if you could wave a

magic wand, would you ask every governor to do a stay-at-home order?


FAUCI:  You know, I mean, stay at home – stay at home orders, you know,

they`re kind of complicated for people to really adhere to. What I would

really like to see, and I`m seeing it, because certain of the governors are

doing it, is just make sure everybody strictly follows the guidelines of

physical separation. If we follow them, Savannah, we would be in much

better shape than we are right now.


GUTHRIE:  Can I ask you to clear something up, Dr. Fauci, there`s this

question of masks and whether regular folks who have to go out in public

should be wearing some kind of face covering. We can agree that there

should not be taking the medical masks that our first responders, doctors,

health care workers need. But there`s been conflicting guidance on this.


Do people need to wear some kind of face covering, even if it`s just a

bandanna when out and about?


FAUCI:  Well, the guidance that`s out there has not changed, where the CDC

says people who are health care providers should be wearing it. If you have

someone who is infected and you want to prevent them from infecting a

person in the health care setting, they should wear them.


What is being actively discussed, and it is being actively discussed today

and we`ll be talking about it tomorrow, given the fact that there is a

degree of transmission from asymptomatic individuals who may not know that

they`re infected, we need to at least examine the possibility, as long as

you said correctly, as long as we`re certain we don`t take the masks away

from individuals who are health care providers, who need them, have some

sort of facial covering. It doesn`t need to be a classical mask, but

something to prevent them from infecting others. So this is actively being

looked at.


GUTHRIE:  I have a question from Facebook, someone named David says, why do

they think warm weather will help? It`s been hot here in Florida, yet the

virus is spreading here just like other places.


Do you have an answer for him?


FAUCI:  Oh, yeah, sure, because classically when you have diseases like

influenza and other coronaviruses that are relatively benign, traditionally

and consistently, what happens when the warm weather comes, viruses

generally don`t do as well in warm, moist weather as they do in cold, dry

weather, and people tend to be outside instead of closed environments where

respiratory infections can spread relatively easy.


That is generally what happens. We are not sure at all, nor is there a

guarantee that when there is warmer weather, we`ll see a diminution. We

hope it happens, but we can`t guarantee it.


GUTHRIE:  Real quickly, Dr. Fauci, before I let you go, we expended the 30-

day guidelines, people asked to stay at home. Do you think it could be

longer than 30 days that`s required?


FAUCI:  We always take it on a literally week by week basis. I believe we

will be able to see a turn around if everybody strictly adheres to those

guidelines in 30 days. But we always keep an open mind, Savannah.


We will evaluate it, just like when we came to the end of the 15-days. I

mentioned to you on a previous show that we`ll look at it on an individual

basis, on a week by week basis and I`m going to do the same thing. I hope

we don`t have to extend it, but if we do, we`ll seriously consider it.


GUTHRIE:  Dr. Anthony Fauci, thank you for your hard work, sir, on behalf

of our country. We really appreciate it.


FAUCI:  Good to be with you. Thank you.


KOTB:  While New York has been ground zero for this crisis so far, the

virus is spreading rapidly, creating new hot spots across the country.


Among them, Louisiana, with more than 5,000 cases and counting. Nearly a

third of them in New Orleans.


Joining us now is Louisiana Governor John Bel Edwards.


Governor, thank you for joining us tonight.


GOV. JOHN BEL EDWARDS (D), LOUISIANA:  Thank you, Hoda. It`s great to be

with you and all your viewers.


KOTB:  Thank you.


Well, wow, we had some sobering numbers today. You had a news conference,

and I was shocked by them. You called the numbers startling, a spike of 30

percent in cases in Louisiana.


Talk about what – how sobering those numbers were to you.


EDWARDS:  Well, first of all, it`s a very tough day here. Not totally

unexpected, because we knew this was going to get worse before it gets

better. Hopefully, we just had a logjam that broke in terms of tests that

were pending and they all came through at once. We`re still trying to sort

that out.


But 1,200 cases in one day was an awful lot. And as you know, we went up to

239 deaths from about another 54 just over the last 24 hours. So, those

numbers are very alarming.


KOTB:  Yes. Governor, you talked about the need – the desperate need for

ventilators. You said that in Louisiana, you could run out by the 4th or

5th of April, which is this weekend.


I know you asked the federal government for 5,000. You said you knew you

were going to get a piece of the pie. You got a call from the vice

president, and he said you weren`t going to get 5,000. You were going to

get 150 ventilators.


Is that sort of the piece of the pie you were expecting?


EDWARDS:  Well, you know, I wanted to make sure that we got a piece of the

pie. We did, it`s 150. Obviously, we continue to work other angles. We`re

ordering from private vendors, as well. We got in a hundred yesterday.


But we`re woefully short of what we need. And we need a couple of thousand

ventilators just in the New Orleans area. And it`s not the state that will

run out in a few days, it will be the New Orleans region.


But we have growing cases here in Baton Rouge, and also over in Lafayette.

Up in Shreveport, the number is well over 200 now. So, we know that the

other regions of the state are just a week, or ten days, or two weeks

behind New Orleans.


KOTB:  Wow, it`s desperate, I know. How much does a ventilator usually run

not during this time?


EDWARDS:  Yes. Well, there are different types of ventilators, but a really

good ventilator should run about $25,000. They`re $50,000 and more now,

that all happened in the last few weeks.


KOTB:  Can`t believe the prices are doubled that they`re charging. Let`s

talk about your extended stay at home order. You know, you want people to

stay at home. You`ve been saying it. I`ve been hearing you, you`re

repeating it over and over.


And yet I see, you know, people having second line kind of they`re like

funerals, I see people gathering.


How do you get the message out to people in Louisiana to stay home?


EDWARDS:  Well, you know, that`s obviously difficult. First of all, we have

an awful lot of people who are complying. I want to thank them.


KOTB:  Yes.


EDWARDS:  But we have some people who are not complying, as well. Maybe the

numbers that came out today will do the trick. You know, some people are

slow to grasp the reality of the situation, and just develop the sense of

urgency we need them to have. But these numbers are sobering, so maybe that

will help.


KOTB:  I think a lot of people may think, that this is a city problem, this

is a New York City problem. This is a Chicago problem, a New Orleans

problem. You said something in your news conference that 60 of your 64

perishes have cases. This ain`t just a city problem, is it?


EDWARDS:  Absolutely not. By the way, the four parishes that don`t have a

case, they have coronavirus. They have COVID-19. They just don`t know it



And this is going to be all over the country. And nobody should think of

this as being somebody else`s problem. That is a recipe for disaster. We

all have a role to play. Every single individual in this country has a role

to play.


KOTB:  I know that`s going to happen. You`re a tough guy. You were in the

82nd Airborne. I know you`re tough.


I know folks in Louisiana are tough. But even tough people can get scared.

What kind of reassurance do you have for your state?


EDWARDS:  We`re just going to be very truthful to people, very transparent.

And we are going to get through this.


And between now and then, it`s going to get tougher. It`s not going to get

easier over the next couple of weeks, and pretty soon, we`ll be able to get

back to where we can – we can hold hands and hug, and do those second

lines like we want to. But we shouldn`t be doing them right now.


KOTB:  Yes, I do look forward to that day, too.


Governor John Bel Edwards, Governor, thank you so much. We appreciate your

time tonight.


EDWARDS:  Thank you, Hoda. I appreciate you. Yes, ma`am.


KOTB:  All right. We do have a lot of people with questions, Savannah, we

have and panel of experts answering your questions throughout the hour

about the challenges facing our hospitals, our health care workers. And

about what lies ahead as this pandemic spreads.


So, NBC News medical correspondent, Dr. John Torres, NBC News investigative

consumer correspondent, Vicky Nguyen.


GUTHRIE:  Well, also, joining us, we have NBC senior business

correspondent, Stephanie Ruhle. Virologist, epidemiologist and NBC News

science contributor, Dr. Joseph Fair, and global health policy expert and

NBC news contributor, Dr. Vin Gupta.


Welcome all. It`s good to have you here.


KOTB:  All right. Let`s get you started.


We`ve got our first question for you, Dr. Torres. This is from Jennette

(ph) on Facebook. And she wonders this: how worried should she be because

her 12-year-old daughter has asthma?



we know that affect people with coronavirus and make them have worst

outcomes are age, as you get older, your outcomes are worst, especially

when you get above 65, and chronic medical conditions, including chronic

respiratory illnesses. Asthma falls under that.


So the fact that she has asthma, puts her at higher risk. But she is 12,

which is the age group that has the lowest risk for any effect of this

coronavirus, so even though she`s at low risk because of her age, her

asthma puts her risk up a little higher. So, she does need to practice

extra precautions.


And if she does get coronavirus, they need to keep a closer eye on her for

breathing problems that are outside of normal asthma type breathing

problems. If they start noticing that, then she definitely needs to be

checked because that could be an issue with her.


GUTHRIE:  OK. This one is for Dr. Gupta. Lisa from Instagram writes: Half

of my family are essential works, the other half are non-essential workers.

We`re trying to self-quarantine, but how are we supposed to do that? I`ve

been cleaning and disinfecting before I even get into the house. Is there a

solution to this problem?


Dr. Gupta, what say you?


DR. VIN GUPTA:  NBC NEWS MEDICAL CONTRIBUTOR:  I think she`s doing the best

she can, and that`s what all American families are doing, especially in

states that have passed shelter in place laws or advocated social

distancing. There`s only so much you can do.


And that`s – this is my advice, if you`re coughing, if you`re having

symptoms, fever, shortness of breath, a cough, to wear a mask at home.

That`s a case where, especially with the CDC potentially revising

guidelines, if you have an asymptomatic family member, wear a mask. That is

what we`re wrestling with. What`s the right thing to do? We don`t know

really know.


Otherwise, infection control, making sure you`re washing your hands, you

know, that is going to be key, and cleaning the house. Those are the right

things. This is many ways just good infection control, good hand hygiene is

the best you can do, especially living in close quarters with other family



KOTB:  All right. We`ve got a question now for Dr. Joseph Fair.


Nicky asks this on Facebook. She said: I`ve heard this could become a

seasonal virus. Is that actually possible? And if it could take up to 18

months for a viable vaccine, what could that mean going forward over the

next year and a half? So, what can she expect?



coronaviruses are typically part of the cause of the common cold,

coronaviruses and rhinoviruses. And we have a cold and flu season that

drops off in the summer and then typically comes back in the fall.


The reason it drops off in the summer, like Dr. Fauci mentioned, it has

something to do with, you know, temperature and humidity, but more so to do

with we have longer sunlight hours. UV is a natural disinfectant. UV light

inactivates both viruses and bacteria, including coronaviruses and we`re

outdoor as more. So, the viruses are inactived.


She`s exactly right about the vaccine. We have a minimum of a year to 18

months to see a vaccine. So don`t put hopes to the vaccine being an end to



That being said, we can expect to see a resurgence of the virus in the

fall. And I think everyone would probably unanimously agree that we will

see that resurgence in the fall. So, we have to focus our efforts in the

summer and getting testing up and running everywhere, replenishing those

stockpiles of masks and PPE and getting ready for the second wave of the

virus in the fall.


GUTHRIE:  Dr. Fair, another one from Alex on Facebook.


A lot of the focus has been preventing acquiring the COVID-19 infection and

there`s little information on those that have made a full recovery. These

that have become infected and have made a full recovery from COVID-19, are

they still contagious? Can they have a relapse? What should they do to keep

themselves and others healthy?


FAIR:  Let me start with the relapse. So, you know, some recent studies and

recent attacks which are animal models, usually that we use for humans,

studies have shown they can`t be re-infected in the laboratory. So that

gives us hope that there is some lasting immunity to COVID-19. How long

that immunity is? We`ll only find out as time goes on and we see survivors.


That also brings up to question, you know, there are different types of

tests. There`s the tests that tells you if you`re acutely ill, that`s the

nasal swab test, and a test from Abbott, et cetera, that tells you if

you`re acutely infected.


Equally is important are your antibody test here, your IGM and IGG

antibodies. That lets you know that you had COVID-19 and it`s let you know

roughly how immune you`re going to be to it. That`s very important for a

number of reasons. One, are you immune to it? And, two, can your serum or

plasma be used to treat other patients? And what you have heard of as the

convalescence serum treatment. It`s a tried and true and it works for many

diseases where we take the antibodies from one person that survived and

literally put them into another person who`s acutely under the fight and it

helps them overcome the infection.


GUTHRIE:  All right, Dr. Fair, to other panel members, thank you. We`ll be

back with you later in the hour.


But when we come back, we`re going to hear from some healthcare heroes on

the front lines in their own words.




UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  We are under an immense amount of stress. PPE is

dwindling so much. And I heard someone say today, another nurse as I was

literally looking for another N95, because the one I had been using since

March 23rd, for all of my patients, they`re all positive.






KOTB:  And later, doing what you can with Jon Bon Jovi.




GUTHRIE:  Welcome back, everybody.


If fighting the coronavirus is a war, then the soldiers on the front lines

are this country`s health care workers, the men and women putting

themselves at risk to help others and save lives every day, 24/7.


KOTB:  And some of those people have been keeping video diaries or

documenting what they`ve been going through.


Here is a sampling in their own words.




UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  It`s literally just got off work. You guys can see my

battle scars from my mask wearing all day. We saw so many patients with

presumed COVID. We intubated a lot of patients, and it`s the first day that

this has felt super real to me as an ER doc. And it`s pretty terrifying.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:  There`s definitely fear amongst the health care

workers of, you know, of us growing sick or seeing our peers get sick. But,

thankfully, we have the protective wear that, you know, readily available

to us. I think it`s just crazy with the numbers rising, and the acuity of

the patients is like nothing we`ve ever seen.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: We are going through an insane amount of PPE. We are

reusing as much as we can. It`s scary. And I just want to tell people in

other parts of the country, take this seriously, because you do not want to

end up like us.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: No matter how many times I work a shift, the one thing

that always comes to mind about this disease is how lonely it becomes. How

you see old people, young people, middle age people just slowly wither

away. And there is no family, or there is no one here to just sit by their

side and hold their hand. And I think that is one of the hardest things

about coronavirus, how people just die alone.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Today was an absolute uptick in sort of the amount of

patients that came in with COVID-like symptoms or that were confirmed

positive. It was essentially exclusively all that I saw today in the ER.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: You can ask any health care worker to name the worst

shifts of their life, and hands down, today would definitely qualify as

top-five for me - probably top-three. We are under an immense amount of

stress. PPE is dwindling so much. I don`t know how we`re going to make

people understand that this is serious, that people come in, walking and

talking, and then they end up on a rapid decline, and we have no rhyme or

reason why.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It feels like playing dominos every single minute over

10 hours straight. Feeling like any one of your patients is about to fall

and collapse. I`m exhausted, but I couldn`t feel prouder of the team we

have in this department and for what we`re doing as a health system and

really as a country. We are overcoming so many major hurdles, but there`s

only one way to do it. There`s only one direction to go, and that`s



UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I think that I`ve seen more intubations in the past

couple of weeks than I have in the past number of years that I`ve worked

here. It`s the moments that break your heart right now.


And when you come across that patient in the car line who is so ill and

they have to come inside and they need rapid intervention right now, they

have this moment, this moment where they look at that family member that

drove them there, and they`re both wondering, am I going to see this person

again. That`s not something that I ever wanted to be witness to.


Every single nurse, every single physician, we`re committed, and we put our

life on the line every day because that`s what we do. And that`s what

nursing is.






SAVANNAH GUTHRIE, ANCHOR MSNBC: Some of the heroes that are working so hard

right now. This is obviously, first and foremost, a medical crisis.


KOTB: Yes.


GUTHRIE: But because of this social distancing that`s required, it`s an

economic crisis, too. And so many families have lost jobs and are waiting

at home and are wondering. And our panel of experts is here because we have

a lot of questions along those lines a well, and we`ll start with Stephanie

Ruhle, who is our Business Correspondent.


Lisa on Instagram asked, “My husband and I are both retired. He receives

social security and I receive teacher retirement. We don`t need a stimulus

check. In the Senate package, will we be eligible?





Savannah. Lisa and her husband are eligible. People who are on social

security, on fixed income, they are absolutely eligible. Now, she is in an

advantageous position where she doesn`t need the stimulus package. It

shouldn`t be looked at as a bonus. This is emergency funding. So I would

recommend, tuck it away, keep it for an emergency when she might need it,

because these are uncertain times.


KOTB: All right. Kim (ph) on Facebook has got a question, and this one goes

to Dr. Fair. She says this. “I`m curious as to why public transportation is

still allowed to operate under our stay-at-home orders, apparently - no

groups larger than 10 people, six feet for social distancing.” She says

that “public transport is like a portable Petri dish.” What do you think?



unfortunate matter - the unfortunate truth of it, rather, is that a lot of

people don`t have any other choice but public transportation. But this is

where it calls for an all-hands-on-deck kind of scenario.


So whoever is in charge of public transport in your city or your locale,

they need to adjust the schedules to make sure that there`s only so many

people allowed on, say, a bus at a certain time, or so many people allowed

on a certain subway car at a certain time.


I saw a picture just yesterday of the New York subway where it was

absolutely packed. Some people wearing masks, some people not. And that`s

obviously a major concern for us, especially here in New York, but all over

the country in urban metro areas where people just don`t have the choice

but to take public transport.


GUTHRIE: Dr. Fair, thanks.


Let`s go to Dr. Torres. Christy (ph) on Instagram wants to know, “What can

we expect when we go back to work? Do we continue to worry about

contracting and spreading the virus until there is an immunization ready?

I`m a beauty industry service professional.” What do you say?



thing is that we think this is going to taper off when the warm weather

hits here. And once they start letting people out and we start releasing

the shelter-in-place type situations, that means that coronavirus is more

under control and so it`s not out there as much.


But at the same time, we do know it`s more likely going to come back, and

it might never completely disappear. So you`re going to have to take these

measurements we`ve been taking at heart for the rest of the year. And this

is going to be a new normal.


And by that, I don`t necessarily mean the six-foot distancing because she

works in a salon, she`s going to get near people. But definitely, the

washing your hands before you touch your face, maybe not shaking hands

anymore, maybe doing some other form of greeting, just those things we know

that can help keep us safe, because this thing is going to come back and it

might not completely go away this summer. So you`re going to have to be

careful. This is going to be the new normal.


GUTHRIE: So much has changed about our world. Panels, stand by. We`re going

to have more questions, particularly about some of the economic and

personal challenges faced in this crisis.


KOTB: Yes. When we come back, we`ll have reports on the race to ramp up

testing and a potential game-changer in an effort to make sure this country

has enough life-saving ventilators.


GUTHRIE: And then, a bit later on, we`ve got a special performance by Jon

Bon Jovi. We hope it lifts some spirits. Stay with us.





Albany, Georgia. About three hours south of Atlanta, this small county has

seen the highest number of deaths anywhere in the state, higher even than

some areas with more than 10 times its population. Here, there is only one

hospital to serve the entire area. So some patients have had to go more

than 100 miles away for treatment.


Today, the Mayor told me that it hit suddenly and it shocked everyone, and

in small towns like these, they`ve got even fewer resources to fight back.


KOTB: That was Blayne Alexander reporting from Georgia. A reminder that

those rural, small towns really, really affected.


Now, while our focus has been on the coronavirus outbreak here in the

United States, where there are far more cases than any country on earth,

this is a worldwide pandemic.


GUTHRIE: Yes, by definition. In testing, the race for an effective

treatment have been key in the effort to slow its spread worldwide. Cynthia

McFadden and Keir Simmons have been looking at that part of the story.

We`re going to start with Keir on testing.



Governments around the world are facing criticism for failing to provide

enough tests for coronavirus. Many are racing to produce more. And the

clock is ticking.




SIMMONS (voice-over): The coronavirus pandemic has stormed across the

globe, an unrelenting and invisible army, leaving many countries ill-

equipped to test for the virus.


In hard-hit Spain, Stacey Toops (ph) is a med student from Ohio, caring for

patients with coronavirus.


SIMMONS (on-camera): How long have you been waiting for tests?




SIMMONS (voice-over): In New York, more than two months after America`s

first positive coronavirus case, the sick have been lining up for tests.

Too late to stop the spread.



testing, it is like an airplane flying without visibility. We have no idea

of what is actually going on, on the ground.


SIMMONS (voice-over): It didn`t have to be like this. In January, South

Korea began aggressively testing, and isolating suspected coronavirus

carriers. It now has only around 100 new cases a day. If America had done

the same–


FORMAN: We would have avoided having lockdowns at the level we have now. We

have to work from where we are right now, and that still requires massive



SIMMONS: What does massive testing mean?


FORMAN: Probably means over a million tests a day.


SIMMONS (voice-over): Complicating the picture, there are multiple types of

test. The most effective, called PCR, looks for traces of the virus, but

results can take hours. The test themselves in short supply.


On Monday, President Trump displaying a new, quicker PCR test, fast

approved by the FDA. From tomorrow, thousands of these tests will be

available in America. One in the U.K., this Oxford University team is

showing us how they are making the process even simpler.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: The pink is negative. The yellow is positive.


SIMMONS (voice-over): Another type of test, now FDA-approved, looks for the

antibodies that fight the virus. A simple blood sample in a cassette, like

a pregnancy test. Antibodies to the virus appear days after infection,

showing who has had coronavirus. But they might help governments calculate

when and how to safely lift the lockdowns. And for the world to get back to

business, technology is playing its part.


Governments and companies around the world are increasingly expressing

interest in legally accessing location data from unsuspecting cell phone

users, to track changes to their movements. While the data is gathered

anonymously to map how effective self-distancing measures are, it has

raised privacy concerns. Researchers designing an app that alerts people

who`ve been in contact with you if you test positive.



surveillance. This is about contributing to control the epidemic.


SIMMONS (voice-over): Coronavirus is testing our communities and our trust

in governments. But without effective testing, the world is fighting an

enemy it cannot see. And a vaccine or cure are months, maybe years away.




SIMMONS: The World Health Organization has urged countries to track and

trace everyone suspected of having the virus. Health experts here in Europe

now saying the secret of ending the lockdowns, mass testing.


GUTHRIE: All right. Keir, thank you.


Ventilators have emerged as the crucial tool in this pandemic, helping

victims literally breathe, saving their lives. But with the surge in

demand, ventilators are unfortunately in desperately short supply. Cynthia

McFadden now taking us inside the race to get more of them to the front





UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE (voice-over): Tonight, NBC News has learned that four

ventilator companies will be upping their production of ventilators by 50

percent. But even those 50,000 new machines rolled out over the next year

will be a drop in the bucket of need projected to be in the hundreds of



But into this grim picture enter hope from an unlikely spot just a few

miles outside Waxahachie, Texas. A device being mass produced that some of

the nation`s top ICU doctors believe could help save thousands of people.

Behind his house in a series of four car garages, Chris Austin, his family,

and a few other volunteers are making what may be a miracle, helmets for

ventilation, the only one available in the U.S. that meets FDA requirements

and has been studied in a hospital.



Explain to me exactly how the helmet works.



that feed the air. The opening is cut for the patient`s neck to make sure

there`s no leakage.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE (voice-over): Versions of the space-suit-like helmet

have been widely used in Italy but never really caught on in the U.S.

except for here at the University of Chicago, where ICU doctors started

studying it four years ago. They were encouraged by the fact some patients

could be spared from being put on a ventilator by using the helmet.



if it`s one out of three or one out of five, that is the case that would be

a game-changer when we`re see thing this tidal wave of patients who need a



UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE (voice-over): Dr. Patel and her mentor, Dr. John Kress

have been working closely with Chris Austin to modify the helmets for

COVID-19 patients. Dr. Kress put the helmet to work this week. Here is one

of the first patients, an 81-year-old man.



CHICAGO MEDICAL CENTER: Having the oxygen that comes right off of the wall

supply without a ventilator at all is the idea. And it went very well.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE (voice-over): Back in Texas, orders pour in from all

over the world. VA Hospitals, Johns Hopkins, Mass General have all placed

orders, as well as Canada, Mexico, Italy and many more. Even though they`re

now producing 1,000 helmets a week, they`ve been unable to keep up with



AUSTIN: Working two shifts, basically 24/7. We`re all here until 2:00,

3:00, 4:00 in the morning.


MCFADDEN: Is anybody sleeping in your household?


AUSTIN: The dog. She`s the head of security.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE (voice-over): But he expects to be producing 5,000

units in just a few days, thanks to a surprise call from the CEO of Virgin



AUSTIN: He said, Chris, I saw what you do, and we want to help, whatever it



UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE (voice-over): Chris told him he needed more machines

but didn`t have the cash to pay for them. Later that day–


AUSTIN: We got a call from the supply that said, somebody just paid your

bill. They`ll be shipping tomorrow.


MCFADDEN: And so, Chris, how do you decide who`s going to get them first?


AUSTIN: We know Boston, we know Chicago and places like that. So they

really should get something quicker to save lives.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE (voice-over): The 20 they shipped to Chicago were

delivered yesterday.


KRESS: I think the helmet has the potential to avoid needing ventilators

and then tracheal tubes for all of our patients.


PATEL: I hope that our contribution is that perhaps we can spare a few

ventilators for patients and give them to the patients that need them.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE (voice-over): And a final note, the helmets cost $162

before the coronavirus. And they still do.


AUSTIN: This probably sounds sappy, but we think of what if that was our

son or daughter or grandfather sitting there in that bed gasping for air

and we have to explain to them that, sorry, we don`t have anything for you.

And this, I think, we`ll will make it much more available for a larger

number of people, as many places as we can get. So that`s what really





MCFADDEN: Chris has offered to share the design for his helmets with any

manufacturer who can make them, for free. It looks like he`s already got

two takers in Michigan. Savannah? Hoda?


GUTHRIE: All right. Cynthia, thank you so much. Doesn`t that just do your

heart good?


KOTB: OK. I love Chris in this moment. Wow! What an incredible guy!


GUTHRIE: And to see a good American innovator–


KOTB: Yes.


GUTHRIE: –helping his fellow human beings.


KOTB: Yes.


GUTHRIE: Thank you to him.


We`re back with our panel in just a moment. We`ll talk about some of the

things you can do to help.


KOTB: Also, we`re going to see what one of our favorite performers is doing

to lift all of our spirits when we continue in just a moment.




GUTHRIE: Well, we`re back. It`s Tuesday night. If you watch the “Today”

show, we like to do a morning boost. Just because we`re up late together, I

think we need an evening boost, Hoda.


KOTB: I got an evening boost for you - some wonderful people right here in

New York City. A family-owned restaurant on New York`s upper west side, the

family has started something called “Feed the Frontlines NYC.” It`s all

about getting meals to the real heroes in this crisis. Of course, we`re

talking about the health care workers.


So, with all the restaurants closed, they decided to put their talents and

resources to work, preparing and delivering those meals to doctors and

nurses, all those who are working so hard at such personal risk to take

care of the rest of us.


So “Feed the Frontlines” has raised more than $400,000 from generous

supporters since they started this past Saturday. They`ve delivered

thousands of free meals to hospitals and other health care facilities all

around the city. And I think people probably want to help. And maybe you

shouldn`t make your own meals and take them because there are some rules to

that, but you can go to


GUTHRIE: How good must that feel to have a nice meal in your belly, just

know that somebody cared enough to send it.


KOTB: Yes.


GUTHRIE: We have a few moments to get a few more questions for our crisis

panel. This is for Stephanie Ruhle from Michelle on Facebook. “I`ve heard a

lot about small business. I`m not a freelancer. I run my own business with

no employees. I think I don`t qualify for unemployment or the forgivable

loans. Is there help for me?”


RUHLE: There absolutely is. She does qualify. Senator Chuck Schumer calls

this benefit expansion “unemployment on steroids.” So people who

traditionally don`t qualify, freelance workers, people who are self-

employed, gig workers, they are eligible. One thing I would say, chances

are, if she applies now, the websites are crowded, phone lines are busy,

but have a little patience. The Care Act is here to help, but you`ve got to

give it a minute.


KOTB: All right. We`ve got a question for Vicky. This comes from Wendy on

Facebook. She asks this. “Is it necessary to change out your clothes that

you wore when you went to the grocery store when you come home?”



Wendy. It depends a little bit on what you`ve been doing while you were

out. Did your clothes come into contact with anything? For example, did you

take public transit? Either way, health experts say that the virus can live

on surfaces like clothes or shoes, but it`s unclear for how long. So if you

can, change into some indoor slippers, change into some house clothes, and

always wash your hands thoroughly whenever you come back inside.


KOTB: All right. Vicky, good - good advice.


GUTHRIE: And information.


KOTB: Do you have one more question? You got one?


GUTHRIE: I think we do have another one for Vicky. “Is it safe, Vicky, to

use a community washer and dryer during this time? This came from Amy on

Facebook. Her daughter lives in an apartment with other tenants. She takes

precautions about touching the machine and washing her hands, but she wants

to know is it safe, a community dryer, a Laundromat kind of idea.


NGUYEN: Great question. My cousin literally just asked me this today.

Global health experts we spoke with say, absolutely. Soap and water kills

the virus. Use the warmest water that your clothes can handle and just make

sure you use enough detergent for the size of the laundry load that you`re



KOTB: All right. Vicky, sounds good. I think a lot of people at home are

wondering how can I help, how can I make a difference. So if you`re looking

for how you can help or how to get help, you`re going to find some ideas on

Facebook`s coronavirus resource page. So a lot of people really want to get

out and–


GUTHRIE: Check that out and absolutely–


KOTB: –do their part–


GUTHRIE: –do your part. And the most important thing is to stay home–


KOTB: Yes.


GUTHRIE: –as we heard Dr. Fauci said. We want to thank you for being with

us over the last hour as we`ve been trying to kind of navigate this new

normal, this crisis together.


KOTB: Yes. We want to give a special shout-out to all the men and women of

NBC News who worked with us tonight and who help keep you guys informed

every day. Most of all, though - most of all, our heartfelt thank you to

all of the health care workers, the police officers, the firefighters, all

the first responders who are out there keeping us safe.


GUTHRIE: Of course, we just say our heroes.


KOTB: Yes.


GUTHRIE: They`re our heroes.


And now, as promised, a special performance from Jon Bon Jovi from his home

to yours, a song he wrote with a little help from his fans who sent in

lyrics for some of the verses. Good night, everybody. We`ll see you

tomorrow morning on the Today Show.


And now, Jon, it`s all yours.


JON BON JOVI, AMERICAN SINGER-SONG WRITER: Savannah and Hoda, thank you for

what you`re doing. I`d like to give a shout-out to all the nurses and the

doctors, the truck drivers and the grocery store clerks, policemen,

scientists, teachers, and moms and dads, who are all on the front lines

tonight. You do what you can.


BON JOVI (singing): Tonight they`re shutting down the borders and they`ve

boarded up the schools.

Small towns are rolling up their sidewalks, one last paycheck coming


I know you feel a little nervous. We`re all a little bit confused.

Nothing is the same, this ain`t a game, we`ve got to make it through.


When you can`t do what you do, you do what you can.

This ain`t my prayer. It`s just a thought I wanted to send.

Around here we bend but don`t break.

Down here, we all understand.

When you can`t do what you do, you do what you can.


As we wave outside the window, older loved ones stay inside.

In the sidewalk, babies blowing kisses (inaudible)

They had to cancel graduation, it ain`t fair to scrap the prom.

Our kids in home in isolation. TV news is always on.


When you can`t do what you do, you do what you can.

This ain`t my prayer, it`s just a thought I wanted to send.

Around here we bend but don`t break,

Down here we all understand.

When you can`t do what you do, you do what you can.

When you can`t do what you do, you do what you can.


BON JOVI: Keep doing what you do.


BRIAN WILLIAMS, ANCHOR MSNBC: The pulsating red light atop the Empire State

Building, a beacon above the city as unmistakable these days as the state

of emergency on the city streets below.






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